Complete Guide to Phosphatidic Acid

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A1Supplements Phosphatidic AcidBuilding muscle is a lifelong process.

If you’re like most people, you started your lifting career relatively early in life and experienced pretty rapid results. However, after a few years, the gains in muscle and strength gradually became smaller and smaller.

And, while you might think something has gone off the rails with your training program, the simple truth of the matter is that what you’re experiencing is completely normal. The longer we train and the more gains we make, the harder it is to keep making bigger, better gains.

Does this mean that your hopes continuing to build muscle into your later years is impossible?

No, not at all.

However, there comes a point in all of our lives when we need some help or “enhancement” that taps into those hard-to-find, hidden gains way down inside each of us.But, before you get too wound up, thinking we’re suggesting the use of anabolics, take a breather.

We’ve got an all natural muscle builder, scientifically proven in humans, to help spark muscle growth.

It’s called phosphatidic acid, and it’s one of the newest, most exciting muscle building supplements to hit the scene in recent years. And, unlike so many other wannabe muscle builders that have been released recently, phosphatidic acid actually has some scientific proof backing it.

What is Phosphatidic Acid?

Phosphatidic acid is a type of fat (lipid) naturally produced by the body during intense exercise, especially eccentric training. More specifically, phosphatidic acid is a phospholipid.

What is a phospholipid?

A phospholipid is a compound consisting of a single molecule of glycerol bonded to two fatty acids and one phosphate group. Phospholipids serve many vital roles in the body, but two of the most important ones are as as a signaling messenger inside the cell and as an integral part of cell membranes (including your muscle cells).A1Supplements Phosphatidic AcidWhat Does Phosphatidic Acid Do?

Chemistry lesson aside, let’s get down to why you’re really reading this article — You want to know how phosphatidic acid helps you build muscle, and if it really lives up to the hype.

To begin to answer those questions floating through your mind will require a brief explanation of what causes a muscle to grow.

So often when we want to build muscle and strength, we focus primarily on consuming lots of calories, primarily from protein. The reason you want to consume protein is that it’s rich in essential amino acids, particularly leucine — the “king” of amino acids.

The reason leucine is so powerful, is that it “flips the switch” on muscle protein synthesis. Research has shown that when you ingest 2.5-3 grams of leucine (typically the amount found in a scoop of whey protein), muscle protein synthesis (muscle building) is initiated.[1]

However, as important as protein and amino acids are to building muscle, there’s also another important component to muscle cells that’s hardly ever discussed — FAT.The membranes of your muscle cells and organelles within the cell (i.e. mitochondria, ribosome, etc.) are composed of phospholipids.

As you probably know, lifting heavy weights damages muscle fibers, and when the muscle fibers become damaged, they release an enzyme called phospholipase D. Once released, phospholipase D breaks down phosphatidylcholine (another component of our cells) into choline and phosphatidic acid.

Researchers who make it their job to understand how muscle physiology works discovered that phosphatidic acid leads to muscle growth by directly activating mTOR![2-9]

Essentially, phosphatidic acid is the fat equivalent of leucine — both initiate muscle protein synthesis in the body by activating mTOR.

Cell cultures and all are fascinating, but how about in real-life circumstances. Does phosphatidic acid actually help build muscle when it’s used in supplemental form?

Indeed it does, which is what we’ll discuss now.A1Supplements Phosphatidic AcidPhosphatidic Acid Research

Increases Muscle Growth

The first study demonstrating the muscle building powers of phosphatidic acid involved 16 resistance-trained men (our ideal study group when testing the potential benefits of a natural muscle building compound).

Men were randomly assigned to receive either 750mg of phosphatidic acid or placebo. After 8 weeks of training three days per week, the men receiving phosphatidic acid experienced a 2.6% increase in lean body mass, while the control group only saw a 0.1% increase in lean mass.[13]

A separate study was conducted after this initial study, again using resistance-trained men and observed that men consuming phosphatidic acid doubled the amount of muscle growth as the control group![14]

Increases Strength

Not only does phosphatidic acid significantly increase muscle growth, it also increases strength too!

In the first phopsphatidic acid study we discussed above, researchers also tracked the subjects’ strength found that supplementing with 750mg phosphatidic acid increased max squat strength by an astounding 12.7%![13]

Keep in mind, this was with both groups consuming roughly the same amount of nutrition, which further serves to prove the muscle and strength building powers of phosphatidic acid!The follow-up study in 2013 that confirmed the muscle building benefits of phosphatidic acid did as much for the strength results as well. However, for this study, men were performing the leg press instead of the squat, but still, those receiving phosphatidic acid increased leg pressing strength by an average of 115 pounds, compared to only about 70 pounds for the control group.[14]

Improves Fat Loss, Too!

In addition to tracking muscle and strength gains, researchers also tracked body composition of the men, and found that phosphatidic acid may help fat loss too! More specifically, men receiving phosphatidic acid lost 2.8 pounds (1.6kg) of body fat compared to only 1.1 pounds (0.5kg) in the control group.[14]

This suggest that not only is phosphatidic acid good for building muscle and increasing strength, it can also benefit those looking to do a bit of body recomping too!

Speeds Recovery

One of the coolest things about phosphatidic acid relates to how versatile it is. Yes, it helps build muscle and strength as well improves body composition, but it may also improve recovery.

You see, when we think of muscle protein synthesis, we often think that only means muscle growth, but muscle protein synthesis also affects muscle repair and recovery following a workout.

The greater response in protein synthesis that occurs, the faster your damaged muscle fibers can repair themselves, and then start growing bigger and stronger.A1Supplements Phosphatidic AcidReduces Stress

Phosphatidic acid also supports muscle growth indirectly by reducing stress. When you’re chronically stressed, cortisol levels rise, which hinders protein synthesis and promotes fat storage.

Fortuantely, phosphatidic acid can reduce cortisol levels. Research notes that consuming 400mg per day greatly reduces stress and cortisol levels.[17]

Dosing

Based on the human research that has been conducted to date, the clinically effective dose is 750mg phosphatidic acid per day.

It’s suggested that you consume your dose of phosphatidic acid with your pre workout drink. At the same time, make sure you’re not drinking whey protein at the same time as your phosphatidic acid as some research shows that combining the two decreases the mTOR-stimulating benefits of both.[19]

Does this mean you need to avoid whey protein altogether?

Absolutely not!

We’d recommend consuming the two supplements roughly 3 hours apart to maximize the mTOR boosting abilities of both.High Oral Bioavailability

One area where phosphatidic acid stands apart from other purported natural muscle builders is its bioavailability. Phosphatidic acid has an incredibly high bioavailability and has been shown to be effective in humans.[12]

Very few of the new age natural muscle builders have scientific research backing its efficacy, which is what makes phosphatidic a must-have if you’re looking to build muscle and strength.

Any Side Effects?

NOPE!

As you’re probably aware, one of the many reasons to avoid anabolic steroids is the laundry list of side effects that accompany their use. However, phosphatidic acid is an all-natural muscle builder supplement that comes with no side effects and has been shown to be safe for human consumption.[15]

Is Phosphatidic Acid Safe for Women?

Yes, phosphatidic acid is very safe for women to use. Phosphatidic is non hormonal, all natural, and will not affect levels of testosterone, estrogen, or any other hormone. It enhances muscle growth by stimulating the mTOR pathway in the body, not by increasing levels of anabolic hormones.A1Supplements Phosphatidic AcidBest Form of Phosphatidic Acid

There are many forms of phosphatidic acid on the market, some better quality than others, as with all supplements.

If you’re looking for the best quality phosphatidic acid, as well as the one with the research to back it up, you want to purchase Mediator Phosphatidic Acid.

Mediator phosphatidic acid is derived from soy and when compared against other forms of phosphatidic acid was shown to be significantly better than other forms when measuring increases in mTOR signaling. In fact, Mediator Phosphatidic Acid increased mTOR signaling up to 636%!

Takeaway

Phosphatidic acid is a revolutionary natural muscle builder that enhances muscle and strength at the cellular level with no side effects. At its core, building muscle involves muscle protein synthesis outpacing muscle protein breakdown over the long-term.

With phosphatidic acid, you have a safe, all natural means to maximizing muscle protein synthesis for bigger, better gains is size, strength, and body composition.A1Supplements DAS Labs Phosphatidic AcidReferences

1. Pasiakos SM, McClung HL, et al. Leucine-enriched essential amino acid supplementation during moderate steady state exercise enhances postexercise muscle protein synthesis. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94, 809-818.
2. Tipton KD, Wolfe RR. Exercise, protein metabolism, and muscle growth. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2001;11(1):109-132.
3. Hornberger, T. A., Sukhija, K. B., & Chien, S. (2006). Regulation of mTOR by mechanically induced signaling events in skeletal muscle. Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 5(13), 1391–1396. https://doi.org/10.4161/cc.5.13.2921
4. Hornberger TA, Chu WK, Mak YW, Hsiung JW, Huang SA, Chien S. The role of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006;103(12):4741-4746. doi:10.1073/pnas.0600678103.
5. You JS, Frey JW, Hornberger TA. Mechanical Stimulation Induces mTOR Signaling via an ERK-Independent Mechanism: Implications for a Direct Activation of mTOR by Phosphatidic Acid. Berdeaux R, ed. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(10):e47258. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047258.
6. Foster DA. Phosphatidic Acid and Lipid Sensing by mTOR. Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM. 2013;24(6):272-278. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2013.02.003.
7. O’Neil TK, Duffy LR, Frey JW, Hornberger TA. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin following eccentric contractions. The Journal of Physiology. 2009;587(Pt 14):3691-3701. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2009.173609.
8. Goodman CA, Mabrey DM, Frey JW, et al. Novel insights into the regulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis as revealed by a new nonradioactive in vivo technique. The FASEB Journal. 2011;25(3):1028-1039. doi:10.1096/fj.10-168799.
9. Goodman CA, Mayhew DL, Hornberger TA. Recent Progress towards Understanding the Molecular Mechanisms that Regulate Skeletal Muscle Mass. Cellular signalling. 2011;23(12):1896-1906. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2011.07.013.
10. Goodman CA, Frey JW, Mabrey DM, et al. The role of skeletal muscle mTOR in the regulation of mechanical load-induced growth. The Journal of Physiology. 2011;589(Pt 22):5485-5501. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.218255.
11. Purpura M, Jager R, Joy JM, Lowery RP, Moore JD, Wilson JM. Effect of Oral Administration of Soy-Derived Phosphatidic ACid on Concentrations of Phosphatidic Acid and lyso-Phosphatidic Acid Molecular Species in Human Plasma. Poster Presentation at the ISSN Conference 2013.
12. Hoffman JR, Stout JR, Williams DR, et al. Efficacy of phosphatidic acid ingestion on lean body mass, muscle thickness and strength gains in resistance-trained men. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2012;9:47. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-9-47.
13. Joy JM, Lowery RP, Dudeck JE, De-Souza EO, Jager R, McCleary SA, Wilson SMC, Purpura M, Wilson JM. Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation Increases Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Strength. Poster presentation at the ISSN Conference 2013.
14. Dudeck JE, Joy JM, Lowery RP, De Souza EO, Jager R, McCleary SA, Wilson SMC, Purpur M, Wilson JM. Safety of Soy-Derived Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Healthy Young Males. Poster presentation at the ISSN Conference 2013
15. O’Neil TK, et al. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin following eccentric contractions. J Physiol. 2009 Jul 15;587(Pt 14):3691-701.
16. Joy JM, et al. Phosphatidic acid enhances mTOR signaling and resistance exercise induced hypertrophy. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2014 Jun 16;11:29.
17. Hellhammer, J., Fries, E., Buss, C., Engert, V., Tuch, A., Rutenberg, D., & Hellhammer, D. (2004). Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress. Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 7(2), 119–126. https://doi.org/10.1080/10253890410001728379
18. Bond, P. (2017). Phosphatidic acid : biosynthesis , pharmacokinetics , mechanisms of action and effect on strength and body composition in resistance-trained individuals, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12986-017-0166-6
19. Mobley, C. B., Hornberger, T. A., Fox, C. D., Healy, J. C., Ferguson, B. S., Lowery, R. P. Roberts, M. D. (2015). Effects of oral phosphatidic acid feeding with or without whey protein on muscle protein synthesis and anabolic signaling in rodent skeletal muscle. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-015-0094-7



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